Nur-Sultan (Astana), Kazakhstan
Nur-Sultan (Astana) is the capital of Kazakhstan. It is located on the Ishim River in the north portion of Kazakhstan. Nur-Sultan (Astana) is a planned city, like Brasilia in Brazil, Canberra in Australia, and Washington, D.C. in the United States. The master plan of Nur-Sultan (Astana) was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa.
Nur-Sultan (Astana) is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, a position formerly held by Canada’s capital, Ottawa, until Nur-Sultan (Astana) attained capital city status in 1997. Nur-Sultan (Astana) has an extreme continental climate with warm summers (featuring occasional brief rain showers) and long, very cold, dry winters. Summer temperatures occasionally reach +35 °C (95 °F) while −30 to −35 °C (−22 to −31 °F) is not unusual between mid-December and early March.
Nur-Sultan (Astana)’s economy is based on trade, industrial production, transport, communication and construction. The city’s industrial production is mainly focused on producing building materials, foodstuff and mechanical engineering.
Nur-Sultan (Astana) is the headquarters of state-owned corporations such as Samruk-Kazyna, Kazakhstan Temir Zholy, KazMunayGas, KazTransOil, Kazatomprom, KEGOC, Kazpost and Kazakhtelecom.
Almaty is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,703,481 people, containing 9% of the country’s total population. Almaty is the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan. The city is located in the mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau at an elevation of 2,300–3,000 feet (700–900 m), where the Large and Small Almatinka rivers run into the plain
From 1929 to 1991, Almaty was the capital of Kazakh ASSR. After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, Almaty continued as the capital until 1997, when Astana was designated a return to the historic capital. Almaty remains the largest, most developed, and most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan.
Shymkent is a city in Kazakhstan. It is near the border with Uzbekistan. It is one of three Kazakh cities which have the status equal to that of a region (the city of republican significance). It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan, behind Almaty and Nur-Sultan, with an estimated population of 1,002,291 as of June 1, 2018. According to regional and city officials, the million resident of Shymkent was born on 17 May 2018. It is a regional cultural centre.
Shymkent is situated 690 kilometres (430 mi) west of Almaty and 1,483 kilometres (920 mi) south of Nur-Sultan. It is also 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the north of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Shymkent features a continental Mediterranean climate with hot, relatively dry summers and cold winters. Winters here are noticeably warmer than in more northerly cities like Almaty and Nursultan, with the mean monthly temperature during the city’s coldest month (January) averaging around −1 °C (30.2 °F). Winter snowfalls are common, although rainfall during that season occurs mixed in with that. Shymkent averages just under 600 millimetres (23.62 in) of precipitation annually.
Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus and its’ geographical heart. Minsk is the largest city in the country with population of 1.7 million people. First mentioned in the Medieval Chronicles under the year of 1067, Minsk of today is the city of wide streets, modern and old architectural ensembles, fountains, shady parks and green boulevards well deserving the opinion of being one of the best cities of the former Soviet Union. The city is situated in a picturesque place on the banks of the Svisloch river which in the old days used to be one of the busiest trade routes connecting the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. The climate is moderate continental with an average January temperature of -6C and an average July temperature of +18C.
Minsk is the city where one can find the best of the Belarusian cultural heritage — museums, exhibitions, theatres, world famous Belarusian ballet, folk dance and choir performances, etc.
Minsk is the city where everyone feels at ease. The city has lucrative geographic position (700 km West of Moscow, 900 km South of St. Petersburg, 500 km East of Warsaw, 650 km North of Kiev).
Brest is the city in Belarus, is located in the western part of the country, located at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet, 350 km away from Minsk. Brest is a city with population of 350,616 in 2019 and is the capital city of the Brest Region.
The city of Brest is a historic site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941.
During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795. After World War I, the city was conquered by the Second Polish Republic. During the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939, the city was first captured by the Wehrmacht and soon passed on to the USSR in accordance with the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. In 1941, it was retaken by the Germans during Operation Barbarossa. The city was part of the Belarusian SSR until the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Brest is now a part of the independent Belarus.
Salihorsk (Belarusian: Салігорск; Russian: Солигорск, Soligorsk) is a city in Belarus. In 2010 its population was 102,335. The city it is one of the country’s newest settlements; its construction begun in 1958.
By January 1, 1964, the city already had more than 18,000 inhabitants, and in May 1963 Soligorsk gained city status. Salihorsk lies in the south of Minsk Region near Slutsk, around 120 km (75 mi) from Minsk. Salihorsk is the home city of Shakhtyor Soligorsk football club as well as HC Shakhtyor Soligorsk in the Belarusian Extraliga ice hockey league.
Vitebsk is a city in the north-east of the Republic of Belarus, the administrative center of the Vitebsk region (population – 347.5 thousand people (2009), area – 96 km²).
Located in the eastern part of Belarus on the Western Dvina River, 272 km away from Minsk, Vitebsk is a major transportation hub, industrial and cultural center of the north of Belarus, the second oldest city in the country.
Vitebsk emerged on the picturesque steep banks of the Western Dvina River and the Vitba River, in the middle of the ancient trade route “from the Varangians to the Greeks”.
Modern Vitebsk is one of the largest industrial centers of the Republic, a city with a highly developed industry, science and culture. The city’s streets and squares are impressive with a great variety of monuments of architecture and environmental art.
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city.
Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth. It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe; the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe; and the Moscow International Business Center. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers (421 to 970 sq mi), and it gained an additional population of 233,000 people.
St. Petersburg, Russia
St. Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia after its capital – Moscow, with the population of about 6 million people. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The city was founded by Tsar Peter the Great (ruled 1682 -1725) in 1703 and from 1712 became the new capital of Russia. It had this status up until 1918 when the capital was brought back to Moscow.
Saint Petersburg is the most Westernized city of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world.
St. Petersburg is the northernmost major city of the world. It is located at 59° 57′ Latitude North, 30° 19′ Longitude East (Pulkovo meridian).
Due to the city’s northern position it enjoys the phenomenon of the «white nights», lasting from May 25-26 till July 16-17.
Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa) is the capital and largest city of Poland. Warsaw stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.765 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most – populous capital city in the EU. Warsaw is a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. With a nominal GDP of $230 billion (PPP), it is the wealthiest capital city in Central and Eastern Europe alongside Berlin. Moreover, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Warsaw is one of the Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city was on the 4th place in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in “Human capital and life style”. It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe.
Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe’s most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland’s second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of about 770,000.
In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope ever, and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Also that year, UNESCO approved the first ever sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków’s Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC. Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary’s Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland’s most reputable institution of higher learning.
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Town and Ostrów Tumski Cathedral.
Poznań is the home city of football club KKS Lech Poznań.
Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland’s most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John’s Fair, traditional Saint Martin’s croissants and a local dialect.
Poznań is among the oldest and largest cities in Poland. The city population is about 550,000. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is currently the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship.
Białystok is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Białystok is the home city of football club Jagiellonia Białystok.
Located on the banks of the Biała River, Białystok ranks second in terms of population density, eleventh in population, and thirteenth in area, of the cities of Poland. It has historically attracted migrants from elsewhere in Poland and beyond, particularly from Central and Eastern Europe. This is facilitated by the fact that the nearby border with Belarus is also the eastern border of the European Union, as well as the Schengen Area. The city and its adjacent municipalities constitute Metropolitan Białystok.
Gliwice is a city in Upper Silesia, in southern Poland. The city is located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Kłodnica river. It lies approximately 25 km west from Katowice, regional capital of the Silesian Voivodeship.
Gliwice is the westernmost city of the Upper Silesian metropolis, a conurbation of 1.9 million people, and is the third-largest city of this area, with 179,806 permanent residents as of 2018.
Founded in the 13th century, Gliwice is one of the oldest settlements in Upper Silesia. Gliwice’s medieval old town was severely destroyed in World War II, however has since been rebuilt and underwent a major restoration in recent years. Gliwice’s most historical structures include St Bartholomew’s Church (15th century), Gliwice Castle and city walls (14th century), Armenian Church (originally a hospital, 15th century) and All Saints Old Town Church (15th century).
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 440,950. Approximately 32% of Estonia’s total population lives in Tallinn.
Tallinn Airport is the largest airport in Estonia and serves as a hub for the national airline Nordica, as well as the secondary hub for AirBaltic. Tallinn Airport is open to both domestic and international flights. It is located approximately 4 km from the centre of Tallinn on the eastern shore of Lake Ülemiste. It was formerly known as Ülemiste Airport.
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia. The city lies at the confluence of the Volga and the Kazanka rivers, covering an area of 425.3 square kilometres (164.2 square miles), with a population of over 1.2 million residents, up to roughly 1.6 million residents in the urban agglomeration.
Kazan is the fifth-largest city in Russia, and the most populous city on the Volga, as well as the Volga Federal District.
Kazan was founded in the late 13th century by the Golden Horde. In 1438, Kazan became the capital of the Khanate of Kazan. In 1552, Kazan was captured by Ivan the Terrible and became a part of Russia. The city was seized and largely destroyed during Pugachev’s Rebellion of 1773–1775, but was later rebuilt during the reign of Catherine the Great. In the following centuries, Kazan grew to become a major industrial, cultural and religious centre of Russia. In 1920, after the Russian SFSR became a part of the Soviet Union, Kazan became the capital of the Tatar ASSR. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazan stayed as the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Kazan is renowned for its vibrant mix of Tatar and Russian cultures.
In 2015, 2.1 million tourists visited Kazan, and 1.5 million tourists visited the Kazan Kremlin, a World Heritage Site. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the “Third Capital of Russia”. In 2009 it was chosen as the “Sports capital of Russia”, and it still is referred to as such. Kazan hosted the 2013 Summer Universiade, and was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Sochi is the largest resort city in Russia. The city is situated on the Sochi River, along the Black Sea in Southern Russia, with a population of 443,562 residents, up to 600,000 residents in the urban area. The city proper covers an area of 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi), while the Greater Sochi Area covers over 3,502 square kilometers (1,352 sq mi). Sochi stretches across 145 kilometers (90 mi), and is the longest city in Europe, the fifth-largest city in the Southern Federal District, the second-largest city in Krasnodar Krai, and the sixth-largest city on the Black Sea.
Being a part of the Caucasian Riviera, it is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild to cool winters.
With the alpine and Nordic events held at the nearby ski resort of Rosa Khutor in Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi hosted the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Formula 1 Russian Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020. It was also one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.